Holi is an ancient festival of India and was originally known as
The festivals finds a detailed description in early
religious works such as Jaimini's Purvamimamsa-Sutras and
Historians also believe that Holi was celebrated
by all Aryans but more so in the Eastern part of India.
It is said that Holi existed several centuries before Christ. However, the
meaning of the festival is believed to have changed over the years. Earlier
it was a special rite performed by married women for the happiness and
well-being of their families and the full moon (Raka) was worshiped.
Calculating the Day of Holi
There are two ways of reckoning a lunar month- 'purnimanta' and 'amanta'.
In the former, the first day starts after the full moon; and in the latter,
after the new moon. Though the amanta reckoning is more common now, the
purnimanta was very much in vogue in the earlier days.
According to this purnimanta reckoning, Phalguna purnima was the last day
of the year and the new year heralding the Vasanta-ritu (with spring
starting from next day). Thus the full moon festival of Holika gradually
became a festival of merrymaking, announcing the commencement of the spring
season. This perhaps explains the other names of this festival - Vasanta-Mahotsava
Reference in Ancient Texts and Inscriptions
Besides having a detailed description in the Vedas and Puranas such as Narad
Purana and Bhavishya Purana
, the festival of Holi finds a mention in
Jaimini Mimansa. A stone incription belonging to 300 BC found at Ramgarh in
the province of Vindhya has mention of Holikotsav on it. King Harsha, too
has mentioned about holikotsav in his work Ratnavali that was written during
the 7th century.
The famous Muslim tourist - Ulbaruni too has mentioned about holikotsav in
his historical memories. Other Muslim writers of that period have mentioned,
that holikotsav were not only celebrated by the Hindus but also by the
Reference in Ancient Paintings and Murals
festival of Holi also finds a reference in the sculptures on walls of old
temples. A 16th century panel sculpted in a temple at Hampi, capital of
Vijayanagar, shows a joyous scene of Holi. The painting depicts a Prince and
his Princess standing amidst maids waiting with syringes or pichkaris to
drench the Royal couple in coloured water.
A 16th century Ahmednagar painting is on the theme of Vasanta Ragini -
spring song or music. It shows a royal couple sitting on a grand swing,
while maidens are playing music and spraying colors with pichkaris.
There are a lot of other paintings and murals in the temples of medieval
India which provide a pictoral description of Holi. For instance, a Mewar
painting (circa 1755) shows the Maharana with his courtiers. While the ruler
is bestowing gifts on some people, a merry dance is on, and in the center is
a tank filled with colored water. Also, a Bundi miniature shows a king
seated on a tusker and from a balcony above some damsels are showering gulal
(colored powders) on him.
Legends and Mythology
In some parts of India, specially in Bengal and Orissa, Holi Purnima is
also celebrated as the birthday of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (
1486-1533). However, the literal meaning of the word 'Holi' is 'burning'.
There are various legends to explain the meaning of this word, most
prominent of all is the legend associated with demon king Hiranyakashyap.
Hiranyakashyap wanted everybody in his kingdom to worship only him but to
his great disappointment, his son, Prahlad
became an ardent devotee
of Lord Naarayana. Hiaranyakashyap commanded his sister, Holika to enter a
blazing fire with Prahlad in her lap. Holika had a boon whereby she could
enter fire without any damage on herself. However, she was not aware that
the boon worked only when she enters the fire alone. As a result she paid a
price for her sinister desires, while Prahlad was saved by the grace of the
god for his extreme devotion. The festival, therefore, celebrates the
victory of good over evil and also the triumph of devotion.
Legend of Lord Krishna is also associated with play with colors as the Lord
started the tradition of play with colours by applying colour on his beloved
Radha and other gopis. Gradually, the play gained popularity with the people
and became a tradition.
There are also a few other legends associated with the festival - like the
legend of Shiva and Kaamadeva and those of Ogress Dhundhi and Pootana. All
depict triumph of good over evil - lending a philosophy to the festival.